The majority of people living around the world today are able to speak more than one language, yet many aspects of the nature and experience of bilingualism raise unresolved questions for researchers. Who exactly is bilingual? What is the extent of bilingualism? How do infant bilinguals who acquire two languages at the same time manage to separate them? Does language processing work differently when bilinguals are interacting with monolinguals and with bilinguals? When a speaker changes their language, do they also change aspects of their personality?
In The Mysteries of Bilingualism, François Grosjean provides a comprehensive examination of individual bilingualism that delves into unanswered questions and challenges many of the myths and misconceptions surrounding bilingualism. Through insightful analyses of eleven key questions, this book offers a unique combination of personal reflection, literature review, personal testimony, and case studies to explore these mysteries. Altogether, this text offers:
- Comprehensive explorations of the linguistic aspects of bilingualism, including who is bilingual, describing bilinguals, accented speech, and language loss.
- Practical discussions of speech and language processing, including language choice and mixed speech perception and production.
- In-depth examinations of personality and culture in relation to bilingualism and biculturalism.
Perfect for undergraduate and graduate students of bilingualism, multilingualism, second language acquisition, and applied linguistics, The Mysteries of Bilingualism offers an up-to-date view of the leading research questions in the study of bilingualism today.
Part I Bilingual Adults and Children
1 Who Is Bilingual?
Definitions and Their Evolution
2 How Many Bilinguals Are There?
The Extent of Bilingualism
On the Difficulties of Counting People Who Are Bilingual
The Proportion of Bilinguals in a Number of Countries
Estimating the Percentage of Bilinguals in the World
3 Bilingual Infants’ Journey to Language Separation
Taking Pragmatics into Account
A Brief Account of Language Separation
Part II Linguistics and Neurolinguistics
4 Having an Accent in One of Your Languages
The Phonetic Characteristics of Accents
How Well Is Accented Speech Understood?
Factors that Affect the Degree of a Foreign Accent
Accent in a Third Language
5 Language Loss in Adults and Children
Language Loss in Adults
Language Loss in Young Children
6 Brain Injury and Bilingualism
A Personal Testimony
Language Impairment and Recovery in Bilingual Aphasia
Factors that Account for Impairment and Recovery
A Recent Meta-Analysis
Language Mixing and Aphasia
Part III Language Use and Language Processing
7 The Bilingual’s Languages in Interaction
Choosing the Language of the Interaction
What Role for the Other Language?
Experimental Work on Language Mixing
The Language Mode Concept
8 What a Bilingual’s Languages Are Used For
What Past Research Has Revealed
Recent Interest in Bilingual Language Use
Measuring Bilingual Language Use
Impact of Bilingual Language Use
9 Is Language Processing in Bilinguals Selective or Non-selective?
Language Perception and Comprehension
Spoken Language Production
Part IV Biculturalism and Personality
10 Bilinguals Who Are also Bicultural
Becoming Bicultural and the Evolution of Biculturalism over Time
11 Change of Language, Change of Personality?
Opinions and Beliefs
Pioneering Research on the Question
Feeling Different When Using Different Languages
Is a Change of Personality Involved When Changing Languages?